Matt Mendez recently interviewed me for his excellent blog. Enjoy.
Do read some of his other articles while you are there. Some of the best music writing you’ll find online.
Matt Mendez recently interviewed me for his excellent blog. Enjoy.
Do read some of his other articles while you are there. Some of the best music writing you’ll find online.
To make any sort of living as a freelance musician, you must live in or near an urban area. That situation makes it hard for percussionists to practice once we are out of school, since it is difficult to find a space that can handle the amount of instruments we have or the noise they make.
I recently moved to Western Avenue Lofts in Lowell MA from a small one bedroom unit in Jamaica Plain, more than doubling my living space in the process while decreasing my rent. In my old place, I had no room for my instrument collection, and for four years slept on a makeshift bed in the living room with timpani and bass drums towering over me. Now, I have ample space to live comfortably while having my instruments set up. As I turn my head to the left from my office corner I’m looking at three cimbaloms, a five octave marimba, four timps, a keyboard, and a xylophone. It is a great situation.
Even now with the space issue solved, there is still the noise issue. I although I live in an incredibly welcoming community of artists, I’d have run out of goodwill on day one if I played an acoustic drum set at full volume in my loft. So, I spent several months in 2013 researching electronic drum sets.
It is not a welcoming market. There is not a lot of middle ground between e-drums that look like toys and $7,500 top of the line Rolands. If you have the money to burn, buy the high end V-drums by all means. They are miles above the rest. I do ok, but I’m not about to spend that kind of dough on electronic drums. I eventually settled on the Alesis DMX premium six piece kit.
The biggest problem with most electronics kits is the size of the pads. I prefer to play on four piece kits, so if I’m using a smaller kit I would have a 13″ snare, 10″ tom, 14″ floor tom, and an 18″ bass drum. A lot of cheap E-drums have 8″ pads for everything. It just doesn’t feel like playing on a real drum set. The Alesis DMX comes close with a 12″ snare, 10″ tom, and 12″ floor tom. The size of the bass drum pad doesn’t matter for spacing, and this kit came with a couple toms that I don’t really need but am happy to use. I bought it on Amazon last year when they were offering a $300 rebate, so all in this kit was under $1,000. Not bad. They aren’t offering the rebate now in February 2014, but maybe they’ll do it again in the holiday season.
The biggest complaint everyone has about Alesis kits is the ambient sound that the pads create. The whole point of electronic drums for my purposes was a drum set alternative that I could use without making a lot of noise, but really, out of the box these pads are incredibly loud. But there are solutions to that problem. There is a cottage industry of people home-making mesh head conversion kits for these drum sets. I bought one of those from eBay, and while it did decrease the volume dramatically, the heads were so shoddily made that double stokes and bounces became impossible. The easier and cheaper solution that I found out about later is just to put Remo Silentstroke heads on all the pads.
You’ll notice in the stock photo of the kit, it is arranged in a 5 piece configuration with an extra floor tom. The rack is customizable with a little creativity, and I was able to turn it in to a four piece with an extra floor tom and an auxiliary pad on the left. Why people want a medium tom where the ride cymbal should go, I’ll never know.
Another great thing about having these electronic drums at the ready is that they helped me overcome a rather pesky bout of tennis elbow. In March 2013 I moved heavy gear every day for several weeks, and as a result my left elbow became fairly useless for the better part of 10 months. I didn’t play an instrument outside of rehearsals and performances for that period of time if I could avoid it. With a steady regiment of rest and enough anti-inflammatories to kill an elephant, I no longer wake up with crippling pain in my elbow, but after that period of time my chops definitely suffered a bit. Getting these electronic drums and just sort of jamming on them with varying degrees of intensity got me back in to shape pretty quickly.
But perhaps the greatest thing about practicing on electronic drums is the complete inhibition it allows. I have a cheap PA plugged in to the kit, but I mostly just hear them through headphones with no external amplification. When I lived in JP, I practiced in a complete dump in South Boston: a building filled with burn out rock star wannabes that were barely toilet trained, but I could make all the noise I wanted to without complaint. I practiced drum set a lot in that building. But I did so with the knowledge that other people could hear what I was doing, and one way or another that changed how I played. When I play electronic drums in my loft, absolutely no one can hear me. It gives me the freedom to be experimental, to try things out, to make mistakes, to fail miserably, and as a result, to get better.
The DIY ethic is intrinsic to the percussion world. Percussionists are frequently required to perform on readymades rather than “real” instruments, and most proper percussion instruments can trace their origins to crude prototypes using the simplest of raw materials. The lack of an established performance practice for modern repertoire also leads us to find our own solutions for realizing a given piece. And, as I’ve mentioned before, it is expensive to acquire all the things you need. Cheap, homemade solutions can be a lifesaver. Even over a relatively short career, I’ve come up with (and stolen) some ideas that have helped me immensely. Most of them involve a skillful navigation of Home Depot.
This week I’m playing Olga Neuwirth’s Torsion for solo bassoon and ensemble. The percussion part requires crotales, but only three pitches. This is just one of many pieces that only requires a few pitches out of the 2.5 octaves of available crotales, and having all the unneeded pitches can make a large percussion setup more difficult to navigate. With that in mind, I set out to make a stand that could hold just a few crotales.
I started with a standard steel bar from Home Depot. I’m not sure if they have an official name, but they are usually next to the dowels. The length of the bar will be too long, so you’ll need to saw it in two. This can be done with a simple hacksaw. It won’t be the most fun thirty minutes of your life but it will work. Then, make drill marks where you want the crotales to go using a laser level for alignment.
For drilling the holes, do yourself a favor and get a corded drill, not a battery powered one. As you can guess, drilling through a steel bar requires a lot of power and a battery charged drill won’t get it done. The drilled bar will look like this. The larger hole in the middle is for the cymbal stand that will eventually hold it.
Now you are ready to put mounting bolts in the bar. I used three-inch 10-24 bolts since they are compatible with Zildjian crotale wing nuts. Make sure they are three inches long so that the mounted crotale has room to sit above the cymbal stand wing nut. To secure the bolts to the bar, make sure to use stop nuts. This will prevent the bolt from loosening. After this step it should look like this:
Now you need to add another stop nut about halfway down the bolt that the crotale will sit on.
Then put one layer of moleskin around the bolt so the crotale won’t buzz against it.
It is helpful if you can get your hands on the rubber washers that Zildjian uses on their crotale mounts. I happened to have some lying around, but if you don’t have access to any, I’m sure Home Depot will have a suitable substitute. Do not use metal washers. They will buzz. Here it the mounting bar on a cymbal stand with the bottom washers on.
Now you are ready to add the crotales, the top washer, and the wing nut. I made this bar to hold six crotales, and the finished products looks like this:
Since the stand is long enough to hold six crotales, there is room to hang more instrument underneath the crotales without hitting the cymbal stand.
I mentioned above that the original bar from Home Depot had to be sawed in to two pieces, so I used the left over bit to make a three-crotale version.
These little items will make countless pieces much easier to play, and the total cost of the materials for both stands was $25.
I’m deeply committed to expanding the repertoire for cimbalom, and I’m publishing this informal how-to guide in hopes that composers will be inspired to write for the instrument.
Pitch Layout and Range
The pitch layout of the cimbalom is unlike any other instrument. All cimbaloms have the same pitch layout, and vary only slightly in size. Some older instruments are on a much smaller scale and have a smaller pitch range, but these instruments most likely will not be encountered because they are unfit for professional performance situations.
The normal beating area of the string is between 1-2 inches away from the bridge. As one moves closer to or further from the bridge, sul ponticello and sul tasto effects are achieved.
The standard cimbalom range extends from C2-A6. Unlike its close relative, the hammered dulcimer, the cimbalom is completely chromatic and has no repeated notes. G5, A5, and B5 appear on the diagram to be repeated, but these strings and these strings only have two accessible bridges, and thus two acceptable beating spots. C2 has one large wound string, C#2 and D2 have two wound strings, and the next 1.3 octaves (up to F#3) have three wound strings. From G3 to the top of the range, the strings are unwound and each pitch has four strings. Some modern instruments have a range of A1-A6, but these lower notes should be avoided because such instruments are exceedingly rare, especially in the United States.
On the wound strings in the bass register, the beating areas are on the opposite sides of the instrument, with the C whole-tone scale on the right and the C# whole-tone scale on the left. This makes rapid passages in the bass register difficult to execute since the beating areas on each side of the instrument are 26-28 inches apart. Because of this, I try to keep each hand dedicated to one side of the instrument when playing in the bass register, if at all possible.
The cimbalom has a single pedal used for dampening. Like the piano, the dampers do not affect the high notes of the cimbalom. All pitches from G5-A6 are undampened with the exception of G#5. This is only worth noting because the pedal will not completely cut off the sound of the instrument by itself. Hand dampening must be used to dampen the aforementioned pitches. The sympathetic resonance and sustain of the cimbalom is comparable to that of a piano.
Single Staff or Grand Staff
Cimbalom music is sometimes written on a single staff and sometimes on a grand staff. It really depends on the specific musical passage. Obviously if the music stays primarily in the treble range, there is no use for a bass clef and vice versa.
This passage from Pierre Boulez’ Repons illustrates an effective use of grand staff cimbalom writing. Also notice the precise pedal notations.
In this passage from later in the same piece, Boulez does away with the grand staff when it is no longer necessary.
Dividing Music Between Staves
Because of the bizarre layout of pitches on a cimbalom, it is difficult for a composer to guess which hand will play which note. Because of this, range should be the only factor in determining which pitch goes on which staff. Stravinsky employed the technique of separating the right and left hand on different staves and as a result, his cimbalom parts are difficult to read.
This example is from Stravinsky’s edition of Renard.
This is the same passage of music from my personal edition of the part with corrected staff distribution.
Four Mallets on Cimbalom
It is generally not possible to play with four mallets on cimbalom. Four mallet technique as we know it was developed on mallet keyboard instruments, which have a horizontal note layout. The cimbalom has a vertical layout. This renders the technique one might use on a marimba useless on cimbalom. That being said, some composers have found ways around this.
In this passage from Renard, Stravinsky asks the cimbalom player to play two adjacent notes with one stick.
The right hand alone would be used to play the Bb and G, since those strings are right next to each other. This type of writing is only seen in older cimbalom parts (see also Bartok’s First Rhapsody for Violin and Orchestra) because cimbaloms were smaller in the early 20th century and this technique was easier to achieve. Stravinsky also learned to play cimbalom to some degree and composed his cimbalom parts at the instrument, so he verified that this technique was possible himself. I personally don’t like seeing this technique in music. It is a bit like playing two adjacent marimba bars with one mallet: it happens by accident sometimes but it is very difficult to do consistently.
The entire second movement of Alessandro Solbiati’s Quaderno d’immagini for solo cimbalom employs four soft timpani mallets. Notice however that the music is extremely slow, and that the performer has ample time to contort himself into the correct playing position.
The standard cimbalom mallet is a small wooden shaft curving upward at the tip covered in either leather or cotton. Leather mallets are more common in Western Europe while cotton mallets are more common in America. There is not an enormous difference between the sounds of the two, so when writing for standard mallets, only the hardness and not the material should be indicated.
Composers have asked for various non-standard types of mallets over the years. György Kurtág often asks for fémveró, or metal covered mallets. In this passage from Scenes from a Novel, Kurtág pairs metal covered mallets with violin played col legno battuto.
When writing for metal covered mallets, it is best to keep things below forte to avoid damaging the strings.
In his cimbalom concerto, Gramigna, Stefano Gervasoni asks for a multitude of standard and non-standard mallets.
Pizzicato is frequently used on cimbalom and is quite easy to execute even while holding mallets. It is also possible for one hand to pizz several pitches simultaneously assuming they are all within reach. Because of the note layout, there isn’t a standard intervallic reach, so check with a cimbalom player with your specific requests.
Glissandi are also frequently used in cimbalom repertoire. Chromatic glissandi are extremely difficult to execute and should be avoided. Most commonly, composers ask performers to gliss on a particular set of adjacent strings, resulting in a pitch collection specific to the cimbalom. The following example from Ju Ri Seo’s Etude illustrates this concept.
The glissandi in this passage use the notes on the left mid-treble range, and skip chromatic pitches that appear elsewhere on the instrument.
Harmonics are also possible on cimbalom. It is best to keep harmonics on strings that are not divided by a bridge (C2-B3, C#4, and Eb4). Harmonics are possible, but less effective, on lower bridge-divided strings. Starting at F5, the first overtone is barely possible, and will sound more like a muted string than a discernible pitch. As with any stringed instrument, harmonics closer to the start of the harmonic series produce the strongest sound on cimbalom. On the wound strings, it is easy enough to produce the first five overtones. Anything beyond that would be a bit of a challenge. The high overtones also tend to get drowned out by the resonance from the rest of the instrument. On the unwound strings that are not divided by a bridge, the higher overtones sound weaker than on the wound strings, but are still possible. On the bridge divided strings, it is best to stick to the first two overtones.
When notating harmonics on cimbalom, indicate which string the harmonic is played on, as well as the sounding pitch, as Gervasoni does in this example from Gramigna.
Keep in mind that producing harmonics on cimbalom is by necessity a two handed technique. One hand stops the string and the other strikes it. This requires at least some preparation time. It is possible to prepare harmonics on the cimbalom by placing something like Blu-Tack on the strings, as Gervasoni requires in Epicadanza:
Proceed with caution when considering an alternate tuning for cimbalom. Changing the tuning can be a very time consuming process, and on a program with other cimbalom pieces in standard tuning this could cause quite a problem. Making adjustments to only a couple pitches is easy enough though. Cimbalom strings are extremely taut in their natural state, so tuning upward more than a quartertone should be avoided. For general tuning maintenance purposes, I wouldn’t want to tune my strings downward more than a major 2nd. Also keep in mind that when tuning a pitch that shares a bridge with another pitch, both pitches will be affected. For example, tuning C4 down a quartertone will also tune G4 down a quartertone. This example, again from Ju Ri Seo’s Etude, represents an acceptable scordatura tuning, both in terms of execution and notation.
When composing for extended techniques on the cimbalom, a general rule of thumb is that anything you might consider writing for the inside of a piano is easier to execute on cimbalom. Also, new extended techniques for cimbalom are being invented all the time. Essentially every extended technique in Solbaiti’s Quaderno d’immagini and Otto Canti are used for the first time in those pieces, so one can be imaginative. And, if you are writing for cimbalom and I’ve glossed over an area that needs further explanation, please let me know.
Historic Cimbalom Repertoire
Modern Cimbalom Repertoire
The cimbalom is a Hungarian instrument related to the hammered dulcimer that was invented in 1874 and is primarily known as a Roma folk instrument. It weighs about 200 pounds and requires at least two strong people to move it, so it is the only instrument I own that I can’t move by myself. Tuning the instrument can be a hassle (they’re tuning cimbaloms in hell, I always say). Things like cimbalom mallets and replacement strings are very difficult to find in the United States. The average American orchestra requires a cimbalom player once every 3-5 years or so. I’m frequently asked, given those circumstances, why I bothered learning the instrument to begin with.
My obsession with collecting recordings led me to the music of György Kurtág. One day during undergrad when I was perusing the old Virgin Megastore on Newbury and Mass Ave in Boston, I picked up a CD that included a work of his for baritone, string trio, and percussion, since I was always looking for new chamber music to play. The score proved impossible to acquire back in 2003, but the music was amazing. Brutally expressive yet introverted, and not losing its stoic dignity. I bought all the Kurtág records I could find, and unfortunately learned that he had no other chamber works for percussion, but myriad pieces for cimbalom.
In 2007 I began studying with Frank Epstein at the New England Conservatory, and for my first lesson he asked me to make a list of things I wanted to accomplish that year. I wrote down things I considered to be realistic, like various auditions that I wanted to take (I didn’t end up taking any of them) and on a whim, at the end of the list I added “learn cimbalom?” I was almost embarrassed to even mention it, but when I did, Frank lit up and was very in to the idea. To be honest, if Frank was anything less than totally supportive in that initial expression of interest, I never would have bothered.
Frank later introduced me to the only other cimbalom player in New England (that I know of), Richard Grimes, who helped me find an instrument to rent and showed me the ropes. In the beginning of 2008, an extraordinary coincidence led me to a cimbalom for sale about three miles from my house in Jamaica Plain. I have no idea how many cimbaloms are in the United States, but I’d be surprised if it was more than two hundred, and the number of professional quality instruments in great condition is probably somewhere around twenty-five. The number of those instruments for sale ranges between zero and two at any given moment. So being able to hop in my car and check out one of these instruments after a ten minute drive at the exact moment I needed to purchase an instrument is quite miraculous.
The reason why there are so few cimbalom players in the United States, aside from the scarcity of instruments and the even bleaker scarcity of work, is that the pitch layout makes no sense. Although the cimbalom has close instrumental relatives in most cultures on Earth, knowing how to play one or another of them will do you no good whatsoever in learning the cimbalom. I suppose percussionists might have the slightest advantage over other instrumentalists in as much as we are used to hitting things with sticks. So my strategy in learning the cimbalom was mostly just to repurpose the old books I used when learning how to play xylophone and marimba, and to import my general performance practices to my new instrument.
The biggest hurdle I faced after learning where all the pitches are is that the technique required by traditional cimbalom sticks does not work for me at all. Most cimbalom sticks require one to play with the thumbs facing up. Percussionists might know this as the “French” timpani technique. While a lot of percussionists have success with this grip, my left hand has never been able to do it.
Furthermore, it seems logical to me that the most successful technique in holding any type of stick or mallet is the one that most closely resembles one’s snare drum grip. When playing snare drum, each hand holds one stick, and the only concern is to play on a single large surface as efficiently as possible. That technique should lend itself well to situations with additional considerations. In my experience, the farther away a technique is from snare drum technique, the more likely it is to be nonsense.
Because of the way cimbalom sticks are designed, it is not possible to hold traditional sticks with my preferred snare drum style grip with the top of the hand facing up. In 2009 I finally found someone that makes adjustable sticks that allowed my to use my favored technique.
After a couple years of practicing cimbalom, I still wasn’t able to do much, and I was pretty discouraged. The opportunity of a lifetime came in March, 2009, when I was given the chance to play Pierre Boulez’ Repons that September at the Lucerne Festival Academy. I’m convinced it is the most difficult piece in the cimbalom repertoire.
So, I had six months to learn a ridiculously difficult part by rote. I didn’t nail every aspect of the piece in the performance, but it went pretty well. You can watch it here.
After learning Repons, things got a lot easier. Since then, I’ve been able to play a lot of the standard rep for the instrument with some of the world’s top orchestras, including the Boston Symphony, the New York Philharmonic, and the Montreal Symphony. Without a doubt, the performances I’ve had on cimbalom have been the highlights of my career.
The opportunities open to me as a cimbalom player would be completely closed if I had remained what I was in 2007: a slightly better than average new music percussionist with a tenuous orchestral background. I’m definitely not advising everyone reading this to go out and do what I did, but the more general insight here is that in the cutthroat world of the music business, the more you can diversity your portfolio, the better off you’ll be. But, of course, I didn’t have any of that in mind to begin with. I just wanted to play Kurtág.
(Note: “Tolberg Percussion” is the title I will include on all my posts about percussion. It is a play on words on the German company Kolberg Percussion, which makes highly specialized and incredibly expensive equipment for any imaginable situation. Tolberg Percussion, however, will offer advice to those among us who don’t have $500 to spend on a mounted guiro.)
Here is a sobering fact: to acquire the instruments you need to survive as a freelance percussionist, you are going to spend somewhere in the neighborhood of $100,000. There are biggies, like timpani, marimba, vibraphone, xylophone, glockenspiel, chimes, and crotales in addition to the hundreds of small instruments that percussionists acquire over the course of a career. It adds up pretty quickly, and instruments are only getting more expensive. You know those 4.3 octave Musser marimbas that every music school in the world has? Yeah. They are $10,000 now. (Update 5/14: They are now down to a slightly more reasonable $7,400. Who knows where they will be a year from now.)
It goes without saying that my friends in other fields of the percussion world have different instrumental needs than I do. I have no need to own several $1,000 snare drums for instance, but if you audition for the Boston Symphony, you’d probably be well-served by having a few of those. In addition, since I’m not a marimba soloist, I have no need to spend $15,000 on a 5 octave Marimba One. This post is meant for those intent on pursuing a freelance career.
I can’t speak to what things are like in other cities, but in Boston, you are expected to own the instruments you are hired to play. Union employers do not enjoy paying rental fees in addition to the livable wage, cartage, and doubles that they already work very hard to afford. Moreover, principal percussionists in freelance groups would much rather have a section full of players that can take care of their own instrumental needs.
Here are a few tips for building your instrument library slowly but surely.
Take good care of what you have.
I have a pair of Becker Blues (for non-percussionists, these are widely used xylophone mallets) that came with my very first student bell-kit in 1994. I still have them and I use them all the time. There is no reason why things like xylophone mallets can’t last forever if taken care of properly, leaving you with more money to buy a xylophone. When I got my first drum set that same year, it came with a pair of roto-toms. I did not know what they were at the time, but now I use them from time to time in my professional activities. The second drum set I got in 1997 was a very fancy Pearl kit with 7 tom toms (I really wanted to be the next Neil Peart), and now I have 7 amazing concert toms. I got a set of temple blocks for Christmas when I was 13 so I could play along to The Trees by Rush. Those are the blocks I used last month to play Mathias Spahlinger.
If a deal comes up, take advantage of it no matter what.
In 2007 I was visiting my good friends at National Music in Woburn, MA (if you live in the area, check these guys out). They told me that the price of Zildjian crotales had recently gone up to $1,000. These were run of the mill Zildjian crotales, not the fancy ones they are making now. I told them that I knew of a website that still had them listed for $750 per octave, and they told me to go home and purchase them immediately. I did, and the next month that same site had them listed for $1,000. Earlier that year I heard that a percussion company in Boston was trying to unload some pristine rosewood xylophones from The Netherlands for $1,200. I spent a sizable portion of my NEC post-grad loan surplus on it, and haven’t ever regretted doing so. It was one of the wisest purchases I’ve ever made. On an absolute whim I bought a pair of steel pans for $750. Little did I know I would later need them to perform Harbison, Grisey, and Boulez. In 2008, I stumbled upon a set of chimes on the Central Massachusetts section of Craigslist for $1,200. Most recently I got a 36″ Yamaha concert bass drum w/stand for under $500 also by trolling Craigslist. Sometimes necessity trumps bargain hunting and you just have to buy a new instrument from a dealer, like I have done with my vibraphone and timpani. But when deals come up, do what you have to do to take advantage of it. Instrument purchase loans are available, and are a good option if the interest rate doesn’t cancel the discount.
My undergrad percussion teacher, Pat Hollenbeck, told me once that when I started playing professionally, I’d be playing much more glockenspiel and vibraphone than xylophone and marimba. That has absolutely been true. On that subject, in my professional career, I have never needed a 5 octave marimba. Not once. My 4.3 has done the trick in every situation in which I’ve needed a marimba. If you want to freelance as a percussionist and you have $15,000 to spend on instruments, you’ll get more use out of most other things. I don’t say this to disparage the marimba as a pursuit, and I would quite like to own a 5 octave someday. But unless you are trying to make it as a marimba soloist, hold off on that purchase until you are fairly well established.
Buy what you need as you need it.
I frequently make additions to my instrument collection depending on what a particular job calls for. This doesn’t really apply to the standard instruments, but for smaller, more unusual items, being hired to play something is a good reason to buy that instrument if you don’t already have it. This is how I built up an enormous collection of hand-held instruments, and most recently I had the occasion to purchase a reco-reco, a Brazilian instrument brilliantly exploited in Liza Lim’s Shimmer Songs. I hope I get to use it again someday.
Spend $79 a year on Amazon Prime and buy every piece of equipment you possibly can from them.
The best deal in retail is Amazon Prime, which is a premium service from Amazon.com that costs $79/year, and includes free two day shipping on items that Amazon sells directly. It also includes a Netflix-like library of free streaming video. A staggering amount of percussion gear can be purchased this way at a better price than other online retailers and with free shipping. Believe me, it is well worth the investment.
Remember that you’ll have to move these instruments yourself. A lot.
I own a set of four Adams Universal Series hammered copper timpani. They are among the most affordable professional drums available, and even though they are full-sized copper bowls, I can move them by myself if I have to. Doing so, however, is a nightmare, and I’ve on occasion hurt my back while moving them. I’m thrilled to have the metal bowls, but sometimes I wonder if I should have gone with the fiberglass model, which is so light that each drum can be lifted with one hand. I would never advise buying sub-par equipment for the sake of portability, but one should keep portability in mind when buying equipment at least to some degree.
I recently performed Mathias Spahlinger’s musica impura for the first time with my group, The Ludovico Ensemble. I wanted to program it originally on a concert in April, 2012, but did not perform it until March 2013. The reason for the delay was that it took several months trying before I finally acquired the score.
Figuring out who published the piece was a challenge. I eventually found it listed in an online library catalog and discovered that the publisher is Peer Music. So I contacted Peer Music Germany and was referred to Peer Music New York, who informed me that the score would be made available through Hal Leonard. After several months and several unreturned emails to Hal Leonard, musica impura was still not listed for sale on their website. I turned the matter over to Music Espresso, a sheet music store here in Boston, and they were also given the runaround by Hal Leonard. Finally, I put Music Espresso directly in touch with my contact at Peer Music, and they eventually hashed something out and I got the score in January 2013. I made my first inquiry to Peer Music in February 2012. The bright side is that musica impura finally is listed for sale on Hal Leonard’s website, so anyone that wants to can now acquire the score easily.
With the technology readily available to us in 2013, this is not an acceptable or tenable situation. The music publishing industry is so far behind the times that at this point the only things keeping them in business are their monopoly on content and the near uniform stupidity of their business model, which is so antiquated that frankly I’m surprised that any of them have websites. I wish it were possible for the industry to be entirely digitalized, but this won’t be the case in the near future, if ever. Unlike books and recordings, there is no dedicated e-device for consuming printed music. Even so, having such a device would be impractical for a number of reasons. Still, certain areas of the industry could benefit from digital enhancement. The score for musica impura is about 15 pages long. It would take me 5 minutes to make a PDF of it. This should have been the response to my initial email to Peer Music Germany:
The score is available via PDF and can be purchased for $20 via our PayPal account. When your payment is confirmed you will receive a download link. If you prefer to purchase a hard copy, please include an additional $x for shipping and you’ll receive it in 10-15 business days.”
I understand that this business model wouldn’t really apply to music that has to be rented, but serious improvements can be made on that front as well. The ordeal of perusal scores could use some upgrading. When trying to decide whether to program a piece, presenters can receive a free copy of the score to be returned after two months or so, which is nice. But it can also involve expensive international shipping, and outlandish fees if the score is lost or damaged. Perusal scores should be entirely digital.
Donemus is the publishing house of contemporary music in The Netherlands, and their business model is the gold standard of the industry. 99% of their scores can be purchased in digital form, and perusal scores are all online for anyone to look at. They really are remarkable. I encourage anyone reading this to play around on their website to see what I mean.
To prevent unlawful use of perusal scores, they all look like this:
This digital perusal score is far more convenient than a hard copy and is much harder to use illicitly. After all, what is to stop me from making a photocopy of a pristine hard-copy perusal score and then performing from it without paying a licensing fee, aside from my fear of litigation and my general desire to not be a total bastard?
A lot of composers have forgone publishers altogether and instead make their music available on their own websites. This makes things very easy for any performer that is interested in their music. I would advise any composer that isn’t represented by a publisher to emulate Andy Vores’ website, which I find exceptional. Scores and live recordings are available on his site for most of his pieces, and are well organized.
The major publishing houses are dragging their feet toward progress. Boosey has a tiny selection of their catalog available for online viewing. Schott’s digital store Project Schott New York is most welcome, but I wish it represented their full roster. Most of the music I am interested in happens to be published by Ricordi and Universal Edition, neither of which has any digital distribution to my knowledge (please correct me if I am wrong).
To be sure, all of the people I have dealt with from every publisher I’ve mentioned have been extremely competent and friendly. I have no issue with any of the hardworking people at any of these firms. But their business model is extremely inconvenient for their customers, and I hope it gets modernized soon.